My vision of a Leader: Different leadership theories talk about different qualities that one requires to be a leader. Gary Yukl defines that a leader should have qualities such as motives, personality, values, confidence, expertise, behavior, honesty, integrity, and tactics to influence followers (Yukl, 2010). However, Dwight D Eisenhower put it correctly, when he said, “Leadership is the art of getting someone else to do something you want done because he wants to do it” (Bacharach, 2013). Figure 1 is a video by Brian Tracy who talks about the top qualities of a leader. According to him, leaders are self-made and not born. They do this by first developing their managerial skills, copying other successful leaders, and continually improving themselves. Leaders focus on their strengths and the strengths of their followers. Leaders cannot become great by compensating on their weaknesses but by strengthening their strengths. One only has to be great in two or three areas to be a great leader. A leader has to be role model that everybody looks up to. So, effective leaders carry themselves when no one is watching as if everyone is watching. A leader should encourage his followers by frequently providing positive comments or genuine praise to his followers. A leader should practice integrity.
Figure 1: Top qualities of an effective leader
Source: (Tracy, 2012)
According to me, true leaders have to inspire. People who have the passion, purpose, vision, capability to listen, and a real interest in helping his or her followers to grow, can be inspirational leaders. They should have the capability to communicate clearly, have integrity, should not be narrow-minded, and be sensitive to the needs of the followers (Heathfield, 2016).
Leaders can be autocratic where the leader holds all the authority. Hitler and Donald Trump are examples of autocratic leadership. Democratic leaders allow followers in decision-making. Examples of democratic leadership are Roosevelt and Kennedy. A strategic leader tries to fill the gaps in capabilities by setting down some rules. Examples of strategic leaders are most CEOs of the organizations. Transformational leaders change their organizations completely. Examples include Steve Jobs of Apple Computers and Henry Ford. Facilitative leaders depend on measurements and outcomes and by understanding and motivating the followers. Most successful managers who work in large organizations have this skill to some extent. Laissez-Faire leadership gives authority to followers with no control over them. Herbert Hoover and Queen Victoria are examples of such leaders. Transactional leaders keep the current state and leaders exchange rewards with followers for obedience. Examples of transactional leaders are Bill Gates and Howard Schultz. Charismatic leaders have followers based on their personal skills. Examples of charismatic leaders are Mahatma Gandhi and Winston Churchill (Raza, 2017).
I realized that my leadership style was transactional leadership. I used to be very fair in rewarding good behavior and punishing bad behavior. I was only interested in my team members’ work and I did not take any interest in their goals and dreams. I thought taking interest in their personal issues was not good. I was able to motivate them to complete their work on time and deliver a good quality work product. My friends and colleagues pointed to me that I was being a transactional leader and that I had certain areas to improve. I started paying close attention to other famous leaders, took some leadership courses, and did leadership exercises. I came to know that I wanted to be a transformational leader like Henry Ford.
A transformational leader must have a clear vision. They should have the ability to communicate this vision to their team clearly. Therefore, I should develop myself so that I can become capable of having a vision. I will improve my communication skills by attending courses and practicing communication skills. A transformational leader should have courage so I will try to be courageous when I am faced with tough situations. Transformational leaders need self-motivation and are capable of inspiring others. They should know their people well. It means that I would have to move closely with my team members and know their dreams, goals, and desires. I should provide means for them to achieve them. This will enable them to grow personally. This will increase their motivation. I myself will become a standard in integrity, honesty, and hard work so that I can become their role model (Hogg, 2016).
I will educate myself so that I know what are the qualities required for a leader and constantly compare myself. I will take 3600 feedback (Figure 2) from my superiors, colleagues, and team members so that I can find out where I have problems and work to get rid of those problems.
Figure 2: 360-degree feedback process
Source: (360degreefeedback, 2017)
360degreefeedback, 2017. What is 360 degree feedback?. [Online] Available at: http://360degreefeedback.com/index/what-is-360-degree-feedback
[Accessed 18 March 2017].
Bacharach, S., 2013. Leadership without presumption: Lessons from Eisenhower. [Online] Available at: http://www.inc.com/samuel-bacharach/leadership-without-presumption-lessons-from-eisenhower.html
[Accessed 18 March 2017].
Heathfield, S. M., 2016. Leadership inspiration: 10 leadership success secrets. [Online] Available at: https://www.thebalance.com/leadership-inspiration-1918611
[Accessed 18 March 2017].
Hogg, B., 2016. 7 must have transformational leadership qualities. [Online] Available at: http://www.billhogg.ca/2016/02/7-must-have-transformational-leadership-qualities/
[Accessed 18 March 2017].
Raza, A., 2017. 12 different types of leadership styles. [Online] Available at: http://wisetoast.com/12-different-types-of-leadership-styles/
[Accessed 18 March 2017].
Tracy, B., 2012. Top qualities of an effective leader, New York, NY: Briantracy.com.
Yukl, G., 2010. Leadership in organization. 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc..
leadership and Change:
Change is inevitable in organizations due to the ever-changing business environment. Sometimes the change is voluntary as the organizations might change themselves due to the merger or for getting it ready for using an organization-wide technology such as and enterprise resource planning (ERP) software or something similar. Sometimes changes are involuntary due to a hostile takeover, bankruptcy, and similar situations. It is true that some people resist change while others embrace change. People have six core human needs, which include
- Need for security of the job, physical security, and emotional security
- Need to be a part of a group and be included in their activities
- Need for maintaining power and influence
- Need for order and control so that things are predictable
- A need to feel capable, effective, skilled, right
- Justice and fairness in their dealings(Anderson & Anderson, 2010, pp. 140-141)
Any change will threaten these core human needs and causes anxiety in them as it is a march into the unknown. Therefore, some people resist the change as they have much to lose. For example, Nokia was a paper mill in 1865, but it became a cable manufacturer for telegraph companies after World War II, a television manufacturer in the 1980s, and then became a cell phone manufacturer in the 1990s. External business realities forced Nokia to change, Nokia made this decision voluntarily (Magioff, 2017). Similarly, AT&T was a monopoly and U.S. government broke it up under Sherman Antitrust Act due to an antitrust suit. This change was due to external factors over which AT&T had no control (Beattie, 2017).
These changes could have caused some people to lose jobs, some people to relocate, while others might have benefited due to reskilling and upward mobility. Some people are aware of the new opportunities that a change offers, therefore, they are enthusiastic. However, according to an alternate theory, all employees are resistant to change. However, the organization and its leaders play a large role in calming the employees and make them committed to the change (Anderson & Anderson, 2010, pp. 140-141).
The application of change management models depends on the situation. The CEO who guides a new vision for the company brings about some changes. In such a case, the organization might use Kurt Lewin’s three-step model, which are unfreezing the current state, moving or transitioning to a new state, and refreezing the new state (Lewin, 1951). When the change is a planned change, such as using ERP, one can use Bullock and Batten’s four-step model, which are exploration, planning, action, and integration (Bullock & Batten, 1985). When the change is a transformational change such as the one Nokia or Apple went through, then, Kotter’s eight-step model might be the most relevant, which is shown in Figure 1. If the change is to achieve transition due to site closure, acquisition, or a merger, then William Bridges model for managing the transition is useful. It starts with ending the current status, transitioning to the new state in a neutral zone, and beginning the new state (Bridges, 1991).
Figure 1: Kotter’s eight-step change model
Source: (Hole, 2016)
Figure 2 shows some of the ways in which an organization can overcome resistance to change. Heather Stagl says that mangers can overcome resistance by attacking the root cause. For most the employees change causes major disruption. It makes them feel incompetent as they are not sure what they are supposed to do or they are upset that people are making decisions about them and their work without their involvement. In some cases, their boss may not fully endorse the change, which might be the cause for their disinterest. Some might not like others telling them that what they are already doing is not good enough. So, to implement the change, we have to understand it from the point of view of each person affected by the change and take care of their concerns. Managers play a crucial role in managing the change and overcoming the resistance to change in the employees as they are the nearest to the employees. They have to get a buy-in from the employees but explaining to them the need for the change and what happens if the change does not happen. The manager can overcome a big hurdle by focusing on employees who have not decided and converting them, a big hurdle. Managers should encourage openness and two-way communication. They should be fair in their dealings with employees (Scheid, 2011).
Figure 2: How to Deal with Resistance to Change by Heather Stagl
Source: (Stagl, 2015)
Anderson, D. & Anderson, L. A., 2010. Beyond change management : how to achieve breakthrough results through conscious change leadership. 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.
Beattie, A., 2017. Why is the 1982 AT&T breakup considered one of the most successful spinoffs in history?. [Online] Available at: http://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/09/att-breakup-spinoff.asp
[Accessed 18 March 2017].
Bridges, W., 1991. Managing transitions. Reading, MA: Perseus.
Bullock, R. J. & Batten, D., 1985. It’s just a phase we’re going through: a review and synthesis of OD phase analysis. Group & Organization Management, 10(4), pp. 383-412.
Hole, G., 2016. How we used Kotter’s eight step model for change and succeed within a turnaround case of a Nordic BPO suppliers. [Online] Available at: http://www.dr-glennhole.org/how-we-used-kotters-eight-step-model-for-change-and-succeed-within-a-turnaround-case-of-a-nordic-bpo-suppliers/
[Accessed 18 March 2017].
Lewin, K., 1951. Field theory in social science. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
Magioff, L., 2017. Examples of transformational change. [Online] Available at: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/examples-transformational-change-18261.html
[Accessed 18 March 2017].
Mullins, L. J., 2010. Management and organisational behaviour. 10th ed. Indianapolis, IN: FT Publishing International.
Scheid, J., 2011. Overcoming resistance, ignorance and denial in change management. [Online] Available at: http://www.brighthubpm.com/change-management/34940-overcoming-resistance-ignorance-and-denial-in-change-management/
[Accessed 18 March 2017].
Stagl, H., 2015. How to Deal with Resistance to Change | Heather Stagl |, New York, NY:.
Most Effective Leadership and Management Styles:
The Chartered Management Institute published a checklist so that people can understand the various management and leadership styles. They were interested in knowing answers to the following questions. “Which personal style should managers adopt to ensure success? What is the most effective approach to managing the work of subordinates? These questions have been extensively researched and debated over the last century, and while the general consensus has moved away from ‘command and control’ to management and leadership towards more consultative and participative approaches, there is no single ideal, as the best approach may vary according to circumstances and individual characteristics” (CMI, 2013). This blog expands on the topic and tries to answer these questions.
2. Leadership vs. Management
Leadership had existed for thousands of years, but management is a recent concept due to the rise of large organisations. Almost all experts agree that leadership is different from management. However, leadership is not a replacement for management nor is it better. John Kotter says organisations do not understand the differences between leadership and management. Most of the organisations are under-led and over-managed (Kotter, 2013). Figure 1 lists the differences between leadership and management. The film in Figure 2 is a lecture by John Kotter where he talks about the problems due to misunderstanding leadership with management.
Figure 1: Leadership vs. Management
Source: (Deepak146, 2014)
Management is about efficiency in reaching the organisational goals. It uses the managerial functions such as planning, organising, and others. Management provides direction by planning, budgeting, and keeping the bottom line in mind. It provides alignment by organisation and staffing, creating boundaries, and directing and controlling. It focuses on the product or service and uses the positional power as boss. The manager has to be an expert. The manager maintains stability and creates a culture of efficiency (Daft, 2008, p. 15). A manager relies on control, takes the short-term view, accepts the status, and does things right (Elearn, 207, p. 2).
Leadership provides direction by creating a vision and strategy. Leadership is about creating shared values and helping followers grow. They focus on people. They gain authority based on personal power. They act as coaches. A leader has open mind, listens, and understands himself or herself. A leader causes a change (Daft, 2008, p. 15). A leader innovates, develops, inspires, has long-term view, and does right thing (Elearn, 207, p. 2).
Figure 2: The Perils of Confusing Management and Leadership
Source: (Kotter, 2012)
3. Most Effective Way to Manage Subordinates
In today’s environment, managers have to be leaders (managerial leaders). Figure 3 shows the different values that a managerial leader must have to manage subordinates effectively, according to Quinn et al based on competing values framework. (Quinn, et al., 2015)
Figure 3: The Competing Values Framework
Source: (Quinn, et al., 2015)
According to Rensis Likert management system, there are four different management styles. They are:
- Exploitative/Authoritative style – Not trusting subordinates, managing by issuing orders, motivates using punishment and fear
- Benevolent/Authoritative style – Trusts subordinates somewhat but puts them down
- Consultative style – Trusts and has confidence in subordinates enough to take their opinion, but makes the final decisions
- Participative style – Trusts subordinately completely, seeks and acts on their inputs(Likert, 1967, pp. 59-62)
A managerial leader should make all the subordinates a part of the decision-making. So, he or she should practice participative style of decision making. I like being a member of a team led by a participative leader, as it gives me a good opportunity to share responsibility. I agree with the statement that is in the introduction. It is good to have different leadership styles at different stages. For example, during a merger, the company needs a transformational leader or consultative manager. During normal operations, the company needs participative manager or transactional leader.
Walt Disney’s leadership was an example of participative leadership. To make one animated movie, hundreds of artists work using thousands of hours of artistic inputs. He was able to share his vision to produce good movies. Jim Lentz, the former CEO of Toyota Motors, North America, was another example of a participative leader. When Toyota was recalling millions of vehicles, he appeared on their website to answer customer questions. He helped his employees face the issues successfully.
CMI, 2013. Understanding management styles checklist 236, Corby, England: Chartered Management Institute.
Daft, R. L., 2008. The leadership experience. 4th ed. Mason, OH: Thomson Higher Education.
Deepak146, 2014. Leadership vs. management. [Online] Available at: https://deepak146.wordpress.com/2014/07/03/29/
[Accessed 11 March 2017].
Elearn, 207. Leadership and management in organisations. Oxford, UK: Elsevier.
Kotter, J., 2012. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dz8AiOQEQmk
[Accessed 11 March 2017].
Kotter, J. P., 2013. Management is (still) not leadership. [Online] Available at: https://hbr.org/2013/01/management-is-still-not-leadership
[Accessed 11 March 2017].
Likert, R., 1967. The human organization: its management and values. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Quinn, R. E. et al., 2015. Becoming a master manager: A competing values approach. 6th ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.a
The Challenge of Managing Diverse Teams:
The Challenge of Managing Diverse Teams
“Research has consistently shown that diverse teams produce better results, provided they are well led. The ability to bring together people from different backgrounds, disciplines, cultures, and generations and leverage all they have to offer, therefore, is a must-have for leaders” (Ibarra & Hansen, 2011, p. 71).
Organisations want to achieve competitive advantage by utilising the variety of talents available in its heterogeneous employee population by integrating the diversity in the workforce in its teams. However, diversity poses both opportunities and threats. If managed properly, team diversity can create significant operational synergies, whereas managed poorly; it can become a major impediment to team functionality due to intra-group conflict, miscommunication, and lack of trust (Jehn, 1995).
Various theories such as sociotechnical theory, group process and productivity theory, input-process-output models, and antecedent-outcome paradigms have shaped the investigation about team or group models or theories. However, the two competing theories about team diversity; the similarity-attraction paradigm and the cognitive diversity theory are important as they provide the required insight into the potential effect of team diversity on performance (Horwitz, 2005).
Those who favour similarity-attraction paradigm argue that the similarity of demographics such as easily identifiable bio-demographics (age, gender, race, and ethnicity) enhances the attraction between team members, and differences tend to be negatively associated with the team performances (O’Reilly III, et al., 1989). This paradigm proposes that the productivity of homogeneous teams is likely to be more than the productive of heterogeneous teams due to the mutual attraction of team members with similar characteristics, whereas heterogeneous groups have lower team cohesion due to the conflicts arising from member differences (Wiersema & Bantel, 1992).
Proponents of cognitive resource diversity theory state that diverse team benefit due to the positive impact that the unique cognitive resources have on the performance by promoting creativity, innovation, and problem-solving, thereby generating more informed decisions (Cox & Blake, 1991). The evidence supports this as the most innovative companies’ deliberatively established heterogeneous teams to take advantage of the multiplicity of the view and avoid the perils of groupthink (Horwitz, 2005). The following video exemplifies this thought.
The Importance and advantages of Diversity in the Workplace
Source: Human Resources Management, Youtube
Many logistics companies, such as UPS or FedEx are international companies, serving more than 200 countries each. They are bound to have a diverse workforce. Since most of the logistics companies work in multiple countries, even the management is culturally diverse. Currently, 20 percent of the CEOs have native leaders representing their home leaders. The leaders or managers have to manage such diverse workforce and deliver enhanced performance from the team by taking advantage of the diversity. The managerial skills required for managing diverse teams are as important as skills such as the skills in the logistics functional area and technical (ICT) skills (Dischinger, et al., 2006). A Delphi survey by Price Waterhouse Cooper found that logistics companies with women in top roles find their profits increasing. Companies find it challenging to achieve both consistency and diversity, as the diversity can be along so many different dimensions. Walgreens has benefited by employing disabled people. The panel has observed that diversity can benefit the company by sparking creativity and enhancing innovation, which is what the cognitive resource diversity theory predicts (Ruske & Kauschke, 2012).
WILPOWER women in logistics cadetship program, Patrick, Melbourne
Recommendations for Managers
Managers should be aware of the advantages and limitations due to a diverse workforce.
- Diversity helps managers access a larger labour pool and enhances company image
- Diversity increases productivity, as observed by Walgreens
- Managers must be aware of the issues such as sexual harassment, racial or other types of discrimination by co-workers and manage this.
In the logistics industry, global firms operate across geographies and hence have to rely on the local workforce to gain knowledge about the local conditions. Therefore, the industry inevitably has a diverse workforce. We know now that gender diversity, as well as cultural diversity, increases the performance of logistics firms. Therefore, it is essential for managers and senior executives to know how to manage a diverse team so that the performance of the organisation is not negatively affected.
Cox, T. H. & Blake, S., 1991. Managing cultural diversity: Implications for organizational competitiveness. The Executive, 5(3), pp. 45-56.
Dischinger, J. et al., 2006. The emerging supply chain management. Supply Chain Management Review, 10(1), pp. 62-68.
Horwitz, S. K., 2005. The compositional impact of team diversity on performance: Theoretical considerations. Human Resource Development Review, 4(2), pp. 219-245.
Ibarra, H. & Hansen, M. T., 2011. Are you a collaborative leader?. Harvard Business Review, 89(7/8), pp. 68-74.
Jehn, K. A., 1995. A multimethod examination of the benefits and detriments of intragroup conflict. Administrative science quarterly, 40(2), pp. 256-282.
O’Reilly III, C. A., Caldwell, D. F. & Barnett, W. P., 1989. Work group demography, social integration, and turnover. Administrative science quarterly, 34(1), pp. 21-37.
Ruske, K.-D. & Kauschke, P., 2012. Transportation & logistics 2030: Volume 5: Winning the talent race, London, United Kingdom: Price Waterhouse Cooper.
Wiersema, M. F. & Bantel, K. F., 1992. Top management team demography and corporate strategic change. Academy of Management Journal, 35(1), pp. 91-121.
“Ethical Leadership is defined as “the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement and decision-making”… [and] the evidence suggests that ethical leader behavior can have important positive effects on both individual and organizational effectiveness” (Rubin, et al., 2010, pp. 216-217)
Ethical leaders encourage their followers to model their behaviours by communicating their standards and use rewards as well as discipline to promote suitable and unsuitable behaviours. Brown et al. (2005), who first quoted the above definition for ethical leadership, had implied implicitly that, the leader’s intent is never to harm his or her followers and act in the best interest of others. The normatively appropriate conduct depends on the context, though certain factors such as honesty, trustworthiness, and fairness are universally appropriate. The normative behaviour could be dependent on the culture, for example, as speaking out against superior’s actions is appropriate in some cultures whereas it is not appropriate in other cultures. Ethical leaders promote ethics by drawing attention to the ethics and make them important by talking to their followers about ethics. They also reinforce these ethics by setting the ethical standards, rewarding those who follow those standards and disciplining those who do not (Treviño, et al., 2003).
According to the Aryee et al. (2002), based on the social exchange theory, the followers of ethical leaders feel that they are in a social exchange with their leaders due to the ethical treatment they receive and the trust they feel, due which their performance improves. According to social learning theory by Bandura (1979), ethical leaders can influence their followers to improve their self-efficacy as they prove to be attractive and legitimate role models, thereby allowing the followers to reach their full potential. There are two sides to the ethics discussion, which are Deontological (Rules) and Teleological (Consequentialist) views. According to the deontological view, the intention is important rather than the outcome. A leader acting according to his or her duty or moral principles is acting ethically, regardless of outcomes or consequences. However, the teleological perspective is dependent on the outcomes and not the actions. Therefore, a leader whose actions bring about the greatest good or something morally good, is acting ethically. Offshoring of jobs could cause distress to some people but by increasing the profits of the company, it achieves a greater good and hence is ethical (Aronson, 2001).
There are two types of deontological views, rule deontology and act deontology. According to rule deontology, a person’s behaviour is ethical only if the person follows a predetermined standards or rules. Therefore, the behaviour is not ethical or unethical based on the consequences but on the rules or standards themselves, which might be composed of a series of guidelines that specify the manner in which an individual must behave to be considered ethical (Vitell & Ho, 1997). According to the act deontology, people act based on a set of norms but there could be exceptions. Individuals are obliged to behave towards others as everybody has rights and dignity, without considering the consequences. Therefore, the concern is about the moral values of the action itself (Aronson, 2001).
There are many types of teleological theories, but the major ones are ethical egoism, act utilitarianism, and rule utilitarianism. In the case of ethical egoism, a person considers an act as moral or immoral based on the likelihood of the act allowing one’s personal objectives and any other outcomes are irrelevant. Act utilitarianism categorises a behaviour based on its potential to provide the greatest good to the greatest number of people, based entirely on the principle of utility. Rules may serve as a guide but they do not form a part of the ethical decision. Rule utilitarianism prescribes that one should conform to a set of rules that provide the greatest good to the greatest number of people (Aronson, 2001).
While traditional literature considers Deontological and Teleological views as opposing each other, Brady (1985) states that Deontologists look back at the culture and tradition for establishing ethical guidelines while Teleologists look forward to finding the solutions that lead to the most positive outcomes of all. Therefore, it is important to use both views simultaneously to resolve ethical issues. However, there is an increase in the use of teleological viewpoint by many organisations or governments when dealing with issues and the deontological viewpoint is becoming secondary (Aronson, 2001).
Figure 1: A Model of Ethical Leadership
Source: (Aronson, 2001, p. 250)
Figure 1 shows a model of ethical leadership that tries to reconcile between the various leadership styles and the ethical leadership theories. Experts generally consider transactional and directive leadership as generally low on morals while transformational leadership is generally highly ethical form of leadership as it is associated with high moral development (Aronson, 2001).
Alan S. Weil’s law firm was in the World Trade Centre on September 11 and affected by the event. Immediately after the event, he checked to see that all employees were safe. He immediately rented a building and equipment so that the company was open for business the next day. This had resulted in the greatest good for various stakeholders though he might have acted he was greedy and did not want to lose a day of billings. His personal reasons may not be likeable but his actions created the greatest good for the greatest number of people so according to the teleological view, it was ethical. Similarly, businesses spend on corporate social responsibility activities and other promotional activities. These are with the intentions of promoting the company or for meeting the regulatory requirements. However, they result in greater good and hence they are ethical. Businesspersons who follow all laws may be immoral as laws are moral minimums. Many of the scandals that have been unearthed are a testament to the fact that businesspersons have become unethical in pursuit of outcomes (Ciulla, 2012).
Recommendation for Managers
Good leaders should be both ethical and effective, but there are few leaders who are both. The criteria that are used to judge a leader is also not morally neutral with some of the unethical but effective leaders being lionised. A leader must have concern for others or altruism, ethical decision-making, integrity, and be a role-model, which are part of authentic leadership and transformational leadership models. They should, however, avoid being pseudo-transformational leaders. They should be honest and fair in all their dealings, they should have a history of being ethical, avoid being coercive and manipulative, and must not be selfish and politically motivated. However, they should deviate from transformational leadership and be transactional when setting the ethical standards and holding followers accountable to those standards. They should be ethical role models for their followers, promote ethical culture as a subculture of the organisation, and be morally aware when approaching any issue.
Aronson, E., 2001. Integrating Leadership Styles and Ethical Perspectives. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 18(4), pp. 244-256.
Aryee, S., Budhwar, P. S. & Chen, Z. X., 2002. Trust as a mediator of the relationship between organizational justice and work outcomes: Test of a social exchange model. Journal of organizational Behavior, 23(3), pp. 267-285.
Bandura, A., 1979. Self-referent mechanisms in social learning theory. American Psychologist, 34(5), pp. 439-441.
Brady, N. F., 1985. A Janus-headed model of ethical theory: Looking two ways at business/society issues. Academy of Management Review, 10(3), pp. 568-576.
Brown, M. E., Treviño, L. K. & Harrison, D. A., 2005. Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97(2), pp. 117-134.
Ciulla, J. B., 2012. Ethics and leadership effectiveness. In: D. V. David & J. Antonakis, eds. The nature of leadership. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 508-542.
Rubin, R. S., Dierdorff, E. C. & Brown, M. E., 2010. Do ethical leaders get ahead? Exploring ethical leadership and promotability. Business Ethics Quarterly, 20(2), pp. 215-236.
Treviño, L. K., Brown, M. & Hartman, L. P., 2003. A qualitative investigation of perceived executive ethical leadership: Perceptions from inside and outside the executive suite. Human Relations, 56(1), pp. 5-37.
Vitell, S. J. & Ho, F. N., 1997. Ethical decision making in marketing: A synthesis and evaluation of scales measuring the various components of decision making in ethical situations. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(7), pp. 699-717.
As a post-graduate student of Coventry University London Campus it is the my last blog for this term . In this post, I will analyse what kind of skills I have gained during the first semester and what is my prediction for next term.
First of all, as a graduate student of engineering faculty of Marine Academy , at the beginning of the main course I had some trouble to understand everything clearly but with attending lectures and seminars I got accustomed to study and acquired new skills. In addition, I made some friends as well as it helped me to work as a group.
Secondly, when we made Personal Development Plan I found out my weaknesses and strengths such as decision making skills, time management, core business, communication skills and team-working. We were separated into groups in our class to make a group work. We had to open a paintball indoor game center around Liverpool Street. When I wrote literature review, it showed that how are my abilities about doing some strategic analysis. At the end of term I defined my improved skills so I decided to find some priorities for the next term.
In the first term, I defined that my still existing problem is time management that’s why next term I will attempt to do everything on time. However, I gained good communication and data handling skills as well.
To conclude, I hope next term I will improve my other weaknesses such as flexibility, enterprising and project management skills. As in the first term, we are going to find out improvement needed skills and how to achieve to aim in the upcoming term.
At the end of week 6, we were requested to make a presentation as a group but each member of group had own research area as well as slides. To make this presentation took a lot of time because we merged all information which we collected during all term such as literature review and online survey.
Firstly, we started with overview of paintball game then we gave brief information about literature review and after that we mentioned our background of business as well as introduction. Secondly, we decided that research methodology divided 3 main parts:
- Research Technique ( Questionnaire Survey Method)
- Data Type (Quantitative Research Data)
- Question Type (Closed questions and Short Answers)
During our seminar our tutor gave us some tips to find information about our research and how to use it on our work. Also it helped us to fix our mistakes as well as we learned how to deal with data. In my part, i talked about some result of questions in ouraddition, I explained that why we asked these type of questions and how these questions correlate to our business. I discovered that my some skills such as speaking and making a presentation improved.
At the end of our presentation my group mate talked about conclusion. Also mate explained that feasibility of opening an indoor game center around Liverpool Street.
In conclusion, presentation examiners asked some questions about our survey, especially, in my part teacher focused on some questions to be sure the result of research and they gave us some advice.
Firstly, after questionnaire we requested to make a survey between people about to open an indoor game center. Aim to ask questions to find out our future prospects and to measure our feasibility of game center.
In our group, before starting to make an online survey, we made a methodology for data where is included our purpose to ask questions. Our survey finished successfully as we predicted so we got 65 respondents. As expected, we had mix gender of respondents and their answers helped us to make a decision about game center. Approximately, each group member had to brought 10 responses to our survey.
We started to ask to people from gender type of questions to how long time people want to play paintball game.After collecting data, we requested that we need to merge and analyse our results. To analyse data it was not easy as predicted, because we supposed that everyone has information about this game also everyone will be interested in. However, “tastes differ” that is why answers were different from each other that’s why we had to explain their answers and we need to support our purpose. After all of these, we separated graphs,charts for each individual group member as well as we added some main information to our presentation slides.
To collect data and analysing data is not simple as we think. Otherwise, it helped to us how to make a survey also which information would be useful for our business idea. To summarize, we decided that to open a paintball game center is feasible around Liverpool Street.
In this blog I will extent my experience of questionnaire analysis. After literature review we did questionnaire with group mates as well as everyone has to write own description about questionnaire. In our group, we made 14 questions which are related to indoor game center in Liverpool street area. Firstly, we started with gender of people after that we asked age and occupation. These kind of questions’ aim is getting a information for base data. According to, this questions help to company to find out target costumers and their lifestyle in future.Next questions were hearing about paintball game such as have you ever heard about that game or from where did you know it? In addition, this information is useful to choose advertising methods. Forthcoming questions are more personally, for instance, how often do you play or with whom would you like to play paintball?
Next questions help to determine us what kind of facilities or area we have to make it. Our questions have a lot of aims but main aims are interests of people and how we should make or improve our game center. The next reason is finding out which type of advertising methods we need. End of survey it will be clarify for all reasons as well as we will able to think about to open paintball game center. In conclusion, all questions are clear and simply to answer as well as it will be helpful. As we know, Liverpool street station is overcrowded area that’s why to open a indoor game center is reasonable.
Nowadays, it was first time which i wrote literature review. Literature review helps to me to identify extent ideas,information, methods which that may be relevant for my project, also it demonstrates the depth of my knowledge about research ( Gould 2011). Before start my literature i did a lot of research on the websites and on the books. My general topic was to open indoor game center in Liverpool Street. At least, i found information and after that i combined all data together. My research covered all aspects of PESTEL analyse and Liverpool Street that is why I planned how to write my literature review and decided to put PESTEL analysis. According to George and Stonehouse Bill Houston (2012) PESTEL analysis is essential for existing and for new companies because this framework helps to determine macro environmental factors. I found a lot of interesting information on the internet such as to use paintball guns are controlling by the government also Paintball Sport Federation co operates with government. Liverpool Street Station is the most crowded station in the UK within 234.000 visitors per day. It means more people more customers and more customers more profits.
In addition, we got together with group-members and discussed how we should to write and what is the main point in our review. At the end of my literature review , i decided to open a indoor game center in Liverpool Street is sensible investment because all factors had positive effect on the company. Also writing a literature review taught me how to avoid from plagiarism and i tried to do my best.
Stonehouse, G, Houston, B, & Houston, B 2003, Business Strategy (2), Routledge, Saint Louis, US [ Viewed 29 Oct 2016]
Steve Gould. 2011. 1.04 How to write a literature review. [ONLINE] Available at:http://library.bcu.ac.uk/learner/writingguides/1.04.htm. [Viewed 01 Nov 2016].
Personal development plan is helpful to make own learning strategy as well as it will help me to identify my weaknesses and some areas which I have to develop. Also I will able to analyse skills which I have developed and which one needs to improve. I have experienced about some skills such as communication (written), cultural sensitivity in my previous life. However I need more experience except of these skills. During my main course I would like to improve my time management, core business and decision making skills which I mentioned it in my Personal Development Plan. In addition, I have target date which shows approximately when I will merge these skills. I have learned about team-working, responsibility, problem solving and analytical skills during my previous education and during my Pre-Sessional English course at Coventry University London Campus. My main course will be more beneficial in my future life. In addition, end of my modules I will get more useful and critical skills which it will be helpful to succeed in my career goal. In conclusion, I have own development objectives as well as my colleagues and tutors will support me all the times to achieve my future plans.